Laparoscopic Surgery

Laparoscopic or “minimally invasive” surgery is a specialized technique for performing surgery. In traditional “open” surgery the surgeon uses a single incision to enter into the abdomen. The size of this incision depends on the organ to be operated and may vary from few inches to even 10 inches. But in laparoscopic surgery we make few 0.5-1cm incisions. Each incision is called a “port.”  At each port a tubular instrument known as a trochar is inserted.  Specialized instruments and a special camera known as a laparoscope are passed through the trochars during the procedure. At the beginning of the procedure, the abdomen is inflated with carbon dioxide gas to provide a working and viewing space for the surgeon. The laparoscope transmits images from the abdominal cavity to high-resolution video monitors in the operating room. During the operation the surgeon watches detailed images of the abdomen on the monitor. This system allows the surgeon to perform the same operations as traditional surgery but with smaller incisions.

Advantages of laparoscopic surgery

Compared to traditional open surgery, patients often
1) experiences less pain,
2) a shorter recovery and back to work early, and
3) less scarring with laparoscopic surgery.
Most intestinal surgeries can be performed using the laparoscopic technique. In the past there had been concern raised about the safety of laparoscopic surgery for ­cancer operations. Recently several studies involving hundreds of patients have shown that laparoscopic surgery is safe for  cancers as wll.
Laparoscopic surgery is as safe as traditional open surgery. At the beginning of a laparoscopic operation the laparoscope is inserted through a small incision near the belly button (umbilicus). The surgeon initially inspects the abdomen to determine whether laparoscopic surgery may be safely performed.  If there is a large amount of inflammation or if the surgeon encounters other factors that prevent a clear view of the structures the surgeon may need to make a larger incision in order to complete the operation safely.

After a laparoscopic surgery-----

You may feel a little sore around the incisions. You may have some pain in your shoulder tip. This is caused by the gas which had been pumped inside irritating the diaphragm which has the same nerve supply as the shoulder tip. This pain soon passes off. The length of time to recover can vary, depending on why the procedure was done and what operations were performed.

Complications of laparoscopy

  1. There may be minor bleeding or bruising around the skin incisions.
  2. Accidental damage to structures inside the abdomen, such as the intestines or certain blood vessels. This is rare but, if it occurs, an emergency traditional operation may be needed to correct the damage.
  3. As with any operation, there is a small risk of complications of anaesthesia.
  4. Occasionally, the incision becomes infected which may require a course of antibiotics.
  5. Complications inherent to the primary operation even if done by open technique.

Routine operations performed by laparoscopy are ( to name a few and commonly performed)

  • Gall Bladder stone
  • Aappendix 
  • Hernia
  • Weight loss surgery 
  • Colon and Rectal surgery 
  • GERD
  • Hiatus Hernia
  • Hydatid Cyst Liver
  •  Stomach surgery
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